Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is a procedure for doing surgery within the kidney using a viewing tube called a fiberoptic endoscope. In RIRS the scope is placed through the urethra (the urinary opening) into the bladder and then through the ureter into the urine-collecting part of the kidney. The scope is inserted retrograde (up the urinary tract) to within the kidney (intrarenal). RIRS may be done to remove a stone or treat cancer. The stone or tumor is seen through the scope and can then be fragmented/vaporized by Holmium laser o removed by small basket. RIRS is performed by a specialist, a urologist (endourologist) with special expertise in RIRS. The procedure is usually done under general or spinal anesthesia. The advantages of RIRS over open surgery include a quicker solution of the problem, the elimination of prolonged pain after surgery, and much faster recovery.
PCNL – Standard/Mini
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the removal of kidney stones through a small incision (<1 cm) at the back. This is usually done under general anesthesia with the patient in prone position under ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance. Mini-PCNL or miniperc is a less invasive form of PCNL in which the incision is still smaller and smaller instruments are used. This is suitable for smaller kidney stones and stone surgeries in children.